Timeline

19/11/1918

In London, an Estonian delegation consisting of Ants Piip, Mihkel Martna and Eduard Virgo present a written request asking the UK’s government to

  • persuade Germany to withdraw its forces from the Baltics;
  • send land and maritime forces to help at the earliest opportunity;
  • send weapons for the Estonian troops;
  • send food to Estonia.
20/11/1918

The Estonian appeal for help is discussed in the office of Lord Robert Cecil, Assistant Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. Those present in the meeting are Piip, Martna and Virgo, Deputy Chief of the Naval Staff, Vice Admiral Sydney Fremantle and Colonel Kisch, representative of the Estonian General Staff. The Estonian delegation make their case and ask the British Government to make a prompt decision. By the end of that day, the British Government decides to supply armaments to aid the Baltic States’ struggle for independence.

24/11/1918

Rear Admiral Edwyn Alexander-Sinclair, Commander of the 6th Light Cruiser Squadron, is appointed the Commander of the British Flotilla deploying to the Baltic Sea. He is given the task of putting together a flotilla of war ships to safely transport weapons to the Baltic States and to demonstrate UK’s political support to Estonia and Latvia. The squadron’s base of operations is to be located in the port of Copenhagen.

24/11/1918

On 24 November 1918, Sinclair is given orders by the Government for Baltic operation “Red Trek”:

assemble a squadron of war ships;

when in the Baltic Sea, ‘show the British flag and support British policy as circumstances dictate’;

supply the Estonian Provisional Government with weapons at the discretion of the Squadron Commander.

On arrival in Copenhagen, the squadron is to await further orders and to avoid any contact with the Red Army and its navy.

28/11/1918

The light cruisers accompanied by destroyers deploy from the port of Rosyth on 26 November while minesweepers and supply vessels set off from Granton and Methilhaven respectively. Near Ellekilde, in the north of Denmark, the collier Tregarth runs aground and does not reach her destination. The Admiralty sends a replacement vessel that sinks after striking a mine in the North Sea.

01/12/1918

The “Sotsiaaldemokraat” [Social Democrat] newspaper writes on 1 December:

As it has been officially announced, today the English fleet is expected to arrive in Tallinn.

This means a new era for our long-suffering motherland, which may leave an imprint on the life of our people for decades to come. <…>

England, whose war ships are believed to be coming to Tallinn harbour today, has taken a friendly stance on Estonia’s sovereignty.

 

Read an excerpt from the original:

Ajaleht / Newspaper / Газета “Sotsiaaldemokraat” 1.12. 1918

The entire newspaper is available here.

01/12/1918

In Copenhagen, Sinclair meets with the British Consul Lord Kilmarnock and the Estonian Ambassador Karl Menning to receive an update on the situation. This is the Admiral’s first conversation with a representative of the Republic of Estonia, who describes the critical state his country is in. He urges the British squadron to set sail for Tallinn as soon as possible to support the Provisional Government and prevent Estonia being occupied by the Bolsheviks. The squadron arrives in Liepāja harbour on 1 December, but Sinclair does not risk leading it north of Liepāja due to the threat from mines.

02/12/1918

The “Tallinna Teataja” [Tallinn Bulletin] wrote:

The vanguard of the British Fleet, 12 torpedo boats, have come into the Port of Libau today.

The entire newspaper is available here.

 

04/12/1918

Despite explicit instructions not to engage in combat with the Red Fleet, Admiral Sinclair still decides to bring the squadron to Estonia. He writes in his report:

My remaining at Libau on account of rumours that movements of the Russian Bolshevik warships were taking place in the vicinity of Reval amounts to an acknowledgement that the Bolsheviks are the superior power, at any rate at the Eastern Baltic. This must necessarily have a very depressing effect on the Esthonians, and give corresponding confidence to the Bolsheviks. …my remaining at Libau will have a worse moral effect than risking a meeting with a superior Bolshevik force in the vicinity of Reval.

 

Read an excerpt from the report:

05/12/1918

On the way to Tallinn, passing west of Saaremaa and Hiiumaa during the night, the second vessel of the squadron, the light cruiser Cassandra strikes a mine and sinks at 03:00 on 5 December. Eleven of the crew dies. Taking into account the mine threat and the condition of the crew, Sinclair decides against going on to Tallinn. On 7 December the squadron returns to Copenhagen.

07/12/1918

Jaan Poska, the Minister for Foreign Affairs in the Provisional Government, informs London that the Red Army and the Baltic Fleet have launched a joint offensive in the direction of Estonia. Poska believes that Bolsheviks are trying to take the capital as quickly as they can, fearing the impending arrival of the British squadron in Tallinn harbour. Although the squadron has been reduced, Admiral Sinclair decides to set off for the Baltic Sea once again.

07/12/1918

The vessels transporting the weapons promised to Estonia reach Copenhagen and join the squadron. Calypso and two destroyers, Verulam and Westminster, which have been damaged, are sent back to UK. The squadron is left with 2 light cruisers and 7 destroyers.

08/12/1918

The squadron, including the cargo ships, sail for Liepāja from Copenhagen.

08/12/1918

Colonel Johan Laidoner is authorised by the Estonian War Office to go to Liepāja and guide the British squadron through minefields, for which he is accompanied by seven pilots. He sets off from Osmussaar on 9 December on towboat Reval, but arrives in Liepāja only on 11 December, delayed by a major storm.

09/12/1918

The naval force arrives in Liepāja harbour for the second time on 9 December.

11/12/1918

Upon arrival, Admiral Sinclair receives Colonel Laidoner on board of the light cruiser Cardiff. Laidoner explains Estonia’s military situation to Admiral Sinclair. Laidoner evidently makes an impact as on the same day Sinclair decides to prepare the war ships for sea. The British squadron leave Latvia in full strength at 22:45 on 11 December.

12/12/1918

Estonian pilots help the British ships complete the dangerous journey without any losses. The naval force arrives in Tallinn on 12 December, and representatives of the Estonian Provisional Government and the Estonian Chief of Staff, Major General Larka, immediately come aboard the flagship Cardiff. After this meeting with the representatives of the Estonian government, Sinclair gives orders to unload the following weapons and cargo in the Port of Tallinn the next day:

  • 100 Lewis machine guns with 3,332,160 rounds,
  • 50 Madsen machine guns,
  • 5,000 rifles with 3,450,000 rounds,
  • 28 depth charges with 50 detonators,
  • 1000 shells for 40 mm artillery guns.

The Provisional Government hosts a festive lunch for the British officers the following day and invites them to see a musical in the Estonia Theatre.

12/12/1918

On 12 December, the provisional Government draws up a detailed list of the weapons necessary for the army, which is handed over to Sinclair. Konstantin Päts also asks that the British warships remain in Estonia for as long as possible, believing that the British presence will deter the communists from attempting to seize power in Tallinn. However, Sinclair has not been authorised to stay longer.

12/12/1918

The telegram sent by the Estonian Chief of Staff Ernst Põdder to the members of the Provisional Government:

The Allies’ fleet has arrived to Tallinn today. Our forces are stationed on the line between Pikaristi and Kabala station.

 

Estonian National Archives
13/12/1918

Taking Estonia’s critical situation at the front line into account, Admiral Sinclair decides to use his guns against the right wing of the Red Army’s forces. Five destroyers are sent to perform this task on the morning of 13 December, but they have to turn back to Tallinn due to fog.

13/12/1918

The “Päevaleht” [Daily Paper] wrote:

And suddenly: they are coming! The news spread around the city like fire, as if someone had blindly pushed an electric button and set the whole city apparatus in motion.

14/12/1918

The “Waba Maa” [Free Land] wrote:

An important meeting was held yesterday in the office of the Ministry of the Interior, attended by Admiral Sinclair, an English diplomatic representative with full power and authority, and the full Estonian Provisional Government. The meeting lasted for over two hours.

The entire newspaper is available here.

14/12/1918

On 14 December, a second attempt is made by two light cruisers and five destroyers. This time Johan Pitka, a master mariner, is on board the squadron’s flagship; his knowledge of local conditions and where the enemy could be positioned on the front line is invaluable. Sinclair is delighted by Pitka, saying he is an optimist and the most practical man he has ever met.

Following Pitka’s advice, the ships open fire with their guns, aiming at Red Army’s likely positions in Aseri and Purtse. Purtse bridge is destroyed, and the Red Army’s supply routes and rear lines of communication are cut. On the way back to Tallinn, Pitka, too, mentions the need for leaving some British ships in the capital for defence.

15/12/1918

The squadron leaves Tallinn on 15 December bound for Liepāja.

16/12/1918

“Postimees” [Postman] newspaper dedicates a major part of its frontpage to the British:

Whatever the British Fleet will do, wherever it is going next and how many ships will join it […] one thing can be said for certain: the Allies will not leave us high and dry.

 

The entire page is available here as PDF.

20/12/1918

Taking Estonia’s situation at the front lines into account, Sinclair decides to take action for the defence of Tallinn as well as Riga and Liepāja, setting out his plans regarding Tallinn in his report on 23 December:

At Reval, one Light Cruiser and two Destroyers will visit the port at intervals, and instruct recruits, as far as possible, during their visits.

 

Calypso is the first to arrive in Tallinn on 21 December.

Excerpt from the report:

22/12/1918

Tallinn is defended from the sea by the light cruisers Calypso and Caradoc as well as the destroyers Vendetta, Vortingern and Wakeful under the command of Captain Bertram Thesiger.

23/12/1918

Led by Johan Pitka, the Estonian Navy conducts its first opposed amphibious landing. At the same time, British ships (the light cruiser Calypso and the destroyer Wakeful) engage the Red Army’s positions.

24/12/1918

The leadership of the Soviet Russian Baltic Fleet decides to organise a scouting mission in Tallinn harbour to find out which enemy forces are present.

26/12/1918

The Soviet Russian destroyer Spartak goes on a scouting mission near Aegna and Naissaar, where it is captured by five British war ships. Attempting to escape, Spartak damages its propeller, running aground in shallow waters at Kuradimuna, and is towed to Tallinn.

27/12/1918

The Baltic Fleet sends the destroyer Avtroil to look for the missing Spartak. Estonian signal stations notice the approaching vessel and send information to Tallinn, from where the destroyers Vendetta and Vortigern are dispatched. Seeing these, Avtroil flees east but is intercepted by Calypso, Caradoc and Wakeful, returning from a scouting raid. After a 35-minute chase, the crew of Avtroil surrenders near Mohni Island.

28/12/1918

For the last time, Rear Admiral Sinclair goes to Tallinn aboard the light cruiser Cardiff, which is escorted by the destroyer Viscount. One of the reasons for coming to Tallinn is the inspection of the captured destroyers. Initially Sinclair intends to take the technically sound destroyer Avtroil with his squadron, but both vessels remain in Tallinn.

31/12/1918

Tallinn receives information that an unidentified submarine has been spotted near Keri lighthouse. The destroyers Vendetta, Viscount and Vortigern are immediately dispatched to investigate. The ships perform a large-scale search operation near Keri lighthouse, launching depth charges for the first time during the Estonian War of Independence. They did not succeed in hitting the submarine.

01/01/1919

Sinclair departs from Estonia, leaving the light cruisers Calypso and Caradoc as well as the destroyers Viscount, Vortigern and Wessex to defend Tallinn.

01/01/1919

Sinclair writes in his report to Copenhagen:

The presence of British ships at Reval has undoubtedly had a good effect, and the recent capture of the two Bolshevik destroyers has given a sense of confidence to the populace.

The present Commander-in-Chief – Colonel Laidoner – is very young, but is undoubtedly able and clever, and is a pleasant official to deal with. <…> “General” Pitka, a civilian, is a enterprising, energetic and a single/minded individual, who does a lot of hard work both on shore and on sea.

 

Read an excerpt from the report:

02/01/1919

Navy Captains Thesiger and Pitka meet on board the destroyer Avtroil. Avtroil and Spartak are handed over to the Estonian Navy for use until the period of combat actions ends. The ships are later renamed Lennuk and Wambola respectively.

Wambola (former Spartak)
05/01/1919

The British warships located in Tallinn are divided into two groups. Group A comprises the light cruisers Calypso and Caradoc and the destroyer Vortigern, which backed up the Estonian amphibious assault in Tsitre. Group B comprises the destroyers Viscount and Wessex. These are to patrol the area between Aegna and Suursaar (Hogland), trying to spot the cruiser Oleg, which has reportedly often anchored near Suursaar. On this day, no vessels of the Soviet Russian Baltic Fleet are seen there. Later that day, the squadron leaves Estonia.

06/01/1919

Admiral Sinclair hands over to Rear Admiral Sir Walter Cowan as Senior Naval Officer Baltic at Copenhagen. In addition to his flagship, the cruiser Caledon, Cowan also has a light cruiser Royalist and 5 destroyers under his command.

They continue to support the Estonians until the end of December 1919. In that year many important events take place including the sinking of the cruiser Oleg and the famous “Kronstadt Raid”, which proved a pivotal moment in the war. You can learn more about these events from the book Cowan’s War: the story of British naval operations in the Baltic 1918-1920 by Geoffrey Bennett.

07/01/1919

Main offensive by Estonian’s begins.

08/01/1919

167 men from Finland delivered by the Royal Navy.

19/01/1919

Narva re-captured from the Soviets.

31/01/1919

Last clash at Paju Estate on the Estonia/Latvia border. This was the last territory occupied by the Soviets. By the end of January 3 000 Finns had been landed.

28/02/1919

Estonian Navy formally formed.

03/04/1919

Danish volunteers arrive in Tallinn. 200 in total. Transported by the RN.

13/05/1919

HMS Curaooa struck a mine.

13/05/1919

White’s Russian’s North Corps managed to advance from Narva city, over Lauga River, capture Jamburg and arrive at Petrograd by middle of June.

18/05/1919

Skirmish in Koporye Bay between Royal Navy and Soviet Navy.

19/05/1919

Maj Gen Gough appointed as commander of the British Military Mission, based in Helingsfor, Finland.

23/05/1919

Council of Allied Foreign Ministers decide to create a military mission, under British Command, to advise Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.

25/05/1919

Pihkva was taken with the help of armoured trains by the Estonians.

27/05/1919

Estonians began advancing towards Latvia, taking Lemsalu (Limbaži), Volmari (Valmiera) and Aluliina (Alūksne) in the following days.

28/05/1919

Maj Gen Gough arrives on HMS Galatea.

29/05/1919

Action at Kaporye Bay between Royal Navy and Soviet Navy.

02/06/1919

Action at Kaporye Bay between Royal Navy and Soviet Navy.

04/06/1919

British submarine L-55 sunk when Soviet destroyers, Azard and Gavril, broke into Kaporje Bay.

07/06/1919

Germans launch attack and against Latvians Estonians, who had to move their HQ back to Walk.

17/06/1919

British torpedo boat engaged and sank the Soviet cruiser Oleg. Agar VC.

21/06/1919

British 1st Flotilla (16 x ships), part of the 3rd Flotilla and 20th Minesweeping Flotilla operating in the Baltic.

23/06/1919

British Military Delegation (24 x officers) arrived in Estonia.

23/06/1919

Latvians Estonians counter-attack Germans and drive them out of Wenden and back to the line of the River Jagel.  This is one of the important dates still celebrated – yearly parades on Victory Day every June 23rd.

26/06/1919

Gen Gough lands in Libau, Latvia, and as head of the Allied Commission gave his support to the Ulmanis Government, arrested Pastor Needra and signed an armistice with Von der Goltz by which the Germans would retire from Libau and Riga.

06/07/1919

HMS Vindictive arrived in Tallinn and ran aground. Returned to the UK for repairs.  Unloaded cargo:

    • 3 x Grain Griffin planes
    • 4 x Short 184 float planes
    • 3 x Sopwith Camel
    • 2 x Sopwith 1 ½ strutter
15/07/1919

HMS Mrytle and HMS Gentian sunk after striking mines.  3 x war graves in CWGC cemetery Tallinn.

26/07/1919

From until 30 Oct 130 x aircraft were used in 90 raids.

30/07/1919

Aircraft raid on ships at harbour in Kronstadt bay.

06/08/1919

4 x Mk V tanks are delivered by the Royal Navy to Tallinn.

07/08/1919

British 2nd Destroyer Flotilla (1st Squadron) operating in the Baltic.  Plus 7th Sub-Flotilla and torpedo boats.

18/08/1919

12 x floatplanes bomb Kronstadt followed by a torpedo boat raid.  4 x motorboats sunk.  Steele and Dobson VC.

31/08/1919

HMS Vittoria was sunk by the Soviet submarine, Pantera.

03/09/1919

HMS Verulam sunk after hitting a mine.

08/09/1919

British Government asked the Estonian Government to transform the island of Naissaar into a base for the British Fleet.

09/09/1919

Permission granted.

28/09/1919

White Russian attack towards Petrograd.  Consisting of 40,000 men and carrying good equipment, they began their assault from Jaama region.

01/10/1919

HMS DRAGON in action in Riga.

10/10/1919

Estonia helps Latvia to defend Riga from Col Bermondt’s forces.

11/10/1919

Agrarian Law passed by the Estonian Constituent Assembly expropriated all non-peasant landlords and redistributed it to the people.

15/10/1919

Estonia conducts a 2000 man landing took in Kaporje bay.

17/10/1919

3 x Renault FT tanks from Finland arrive.

21/10/1919

White Russian, North-Western Army reached the uplands of Pulkovo by October 21, and Tsarskoye Selo was captured.

25/10/1919

Maj Gen Gough sacked as commander.

27/10/1919

HMS Erebus in action.

11/11/1919

Germans had lost they had gained by Bermondt’s offensive.

14/11/1919

General Yudenitch’s assault on Petrograd had failed miserably and his forces returned to Estonia where they were interned.

05/12/1919

Defending Narva against the Soviets after the White Russian, North-West Army, had been defeated.

05/12/1919

Estonia and Soviet Russia Peace Conference starts in Tartu.

03/01/1920

Fighting ended.

15/01/1920

Estonian Constitution passed by the Assembly.

02/02/1920

Treaty of Tartu signed between Estonia and Soviet Russia.